It is not unusual for Jehovah’s Witnesses to contact me through this website to complain and ask for help to deal with abusive behavior on the part of their local Witness leadership. They frequently complain about their Governing Body using guilt and fear to manipulate them into accepting new and uncomfortable religious views. Many of these new programs and changes seem to contradict the original religious views that they promised to dedicate their lives and adhere to.
Are the descriptions of spiritual “tyranny” found in Ronald Enroth’s 1992 article “Dysfunctional Churches” still valid and worth considering by unhappy Jehovah’s Witnesses? Does the word “dysfunctional” apply to them, their leaders and their religion? Please read it and decide for yourself.
Enroth, Ronald, Ph.D.
Savanna Parent [Savanna, Georgia), Vol. 3, No. 3, April 1992, 11
It is common practice for church goers in American society to refer to their own congregation as their “church family.” Students away at college make reference to their “home church.” Church people sing hymns about being part of “the family of God.” Parents often employ family imagery to convey spiritual content to their children.
As behavioral scientists remind us all too often, that most basic of social institutions—the family—is increasingly subject to frailty and failure. The label that is currently popular for unhealthy families is “dysfunctional.” Unfortunately, sociologists of religion (as well as many ex-members) know that some churches are also dysfunctional, even to the point of being spiritually abusive. If truth in advertising standards could be applied to religion, some churches would be required to display a sign reading: “Warning: this church could be harmful to your spiritual and psychological health.”
Far-fetched? Not if my own research of the past few years has any validity at all. Sadly, spiritual and pastoral abuse is more prevalent than most people believe. Like child abuse, it often goes undetected, or else it is strongly denied. Spiritual abuse is inflicted by persons who are accorded respect and honor in society by virtue of their positions of religious authority and leadership. When such leaders violate the sacred trust they have been given, when they abuse their authority, and when they misuse their ecclesiastical office to control their congregations, the results can be catastrophic.
What are the hallmarks of unhealthy, aberrant churches? The key indicator is control-oriented leadership, ministers who have a need to “lord it over the flock.” Abusive leaders demand submission and unquestioning loyalty. The person who raises uncomfortable questions or does not “get with the program” is cast aside. Guilt, fear, and intimidation are used to manipulate and control vulnerable members, especially those who have been taught to believe that questioning their pastor is comparable to questioning God.
Why does a pastor or priest sometimes turn into a spiritual tyrant? I believe it is because of the human desire to control others and to exercise power over people. Each of us has been exposed to the temptation of power, whether in the role of spouse, teacher, or parent. An excessive will to power, coupled with sincere religious motives, can lead to the misuse of spiritual authority.
More than any other age group, young adults are attracted to abusive churches, their seemingly dynamic programs, and their “take charge” leaders. Such churches often target young couples during the crucial child-bearing years. As a result, the energy needed by these young couples for legitimate family interaction is siphoned off into a high intensity cause. Family obligations are sacrificed, and children’s developmental needs are neglected.
How can we recognize a healthy church? In addition to matters of appropriate doctrine, a healthy church is reconciling and restorative, not adversarial and elitist. Members of healthy churches seek to deepen and strengthen their family commitments. Legitimate leaders will welcome dissent and hard questions from members without threat of reprisal. Trustworthy leaders will encourage accountability, and they will establish checks and balances.
Choose a church carefully and prayerfully. Remember, not all religion is benign, and not all church experience is beneficial.
Ronald M. Enroth, a professor of sociology at Westmont College [Santa Barbara, California], is a recognized and respected expert on American religious movements. He has written many articles and books on the cults and aberrant religious groups, including The Lure of Cults and Churches That Abuse. [Author Ronald Enroth is a member of the Editorial Board of the Cultic Studies Journal, which is published by the American Family Foundation, publisher of the Cult Observer.]